Download Animal Camouflage: Mechanisms and Function by Martin Stevens, Sami Merilaita PDF

By Martin Stevens, Sami Merilaita

Within the final decade, examine at the formerly dormant box of camouflage has complicated swiftly, with a variety of experiences tough conventional options, investigating formerly untested theories and incorporating a better appreciation of the visible and cognitive platforms of the observer. utilizing stories of either actual animals and synthetic platforms, this ebook synthesises the present nation of play in camouflage study and knowing. It introduces the differing kinds of camouflage and the way they paintings, together with history matching, disruptive colour and obliterative shading. It additionally demonstrates the methodologies used to check them and discusses how camouflage pertains to different topics, rather with reference to what it could possibly let us know approximately visible belief. the combination of fundamental study and reports indicates scholars and researchers the place the sector at present stands and the place fascinating and significant difficulties stay to be solved, illustrating how the research of camouflage is probably going to growth sooner or later.

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Additional resources for Animal Camouflage: Mechanisms and Function

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This range of outcomes could be described as a specialisation–compromise continuum. The above models make predictions regarding where on the continuum an animal’s appearance is located, based on a range of factors. In homogeneous habitats, where all samples are similar, predicting the optimal, background-matching coloration is simple: an insect always occurring on green leaves should be green and a fish that is always seen against gravel beds should have a mottled patterning. g. many grasshoppers, crickets, geometrids).

Stevens and S. Merilaita, published by Cambridge University Press. C Cambridge University Press 2011. 18 S. Merilaita & M. 1 In background matching the coloration of an animal resembles the visual background of the animal. This adaptation decreases the risk of the animal being detected. For example, the grayling (Hipparchia semele) is a butterfly that appears to match its background (a lichencovered rock) well. However, which aspects of potential concealment are necessary and which are less important to produce a background-matching colour pattern that effectively deceives predator perception?

Yet, if integrated in a comparative study of numerous different species, this approach could be useful in identification of general characteristics in the use of patterning for background matching (see Stoddard & Stevens 2010). Another way, instead of comparing different species, is to use a colour-changing species as did Shohet et al. (2007). They photographed cuttlefish on different backgrounds and used pattern analysis to identify those parts of the animal’s body that changed significantly when a given background pattern was present.

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