Neurosurgery

Download Analgesia by Christoph Stein, Christoph Stein PDF

By Christoph Stein, Christoph Stein

This quantity makes an attempt to summarize the present nation of data on mechanisms underlying many of the results of analgesics, their facet impression profiles, and their symptoms and contraindications in medical use. It additionally provides insights into present efforts to find novel mechanisms underlying the new release of alternative sorts of soreness and the ensuing improvement of recent modulating compounds.

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9 Side Effects . . . . Acute Opioid Application Cardiovascular System . Respiratory System . . Sedation . . . . . Nausea and Vomiting . Cough Suppression . . Pupil Constriction . . Skeletal Muscle Rigidity . Gastrointestinal System . Histamine Release . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3 Clinical Applications . . Acute Pain . . . . . Chronic Pain . . . . Pharmacokinetics . . . Absorption . . . . . Distribution . . . . Metabolism and Excretion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2005; Kumar et al. 2005; Whiteside et al. 2004). 1 Supraspinal and Spinal Sites Various major brain regions containing opioid peptides and opioid receptors have been identified including the periaqueductal gray, the locus coeruleus, and the rostral ventral medulla (Heinricher and Morgan 1999; Fig. 4a). All three opioid receptors are also present in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, which is in another area important for opioid-induced analgesia (Fig. 4b). The μ-, δ-, and κ-opioid receptors are mainly located in the upper laminae, particularly the substantia gelatinosa (laminae I and II).

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