By Michael Frank Hordeski
Revised and up to date, Alternative Fuels addresses the various elements affecting our power use, together with the supply and desirability of varied fuels—especially using hydrogen. This re-creation covers new hydrogen advancements in expertise, oil provides and new drilling ideas, most recent info on hydrogen street initiatives, breakthroughs in gas cellphone expertise and extremely low emissions in transportation, the newest facts on rising oil markets, strength reserves, and carbon dioxide raises.
Also integrated is fabric on strength coverage, gas provide tendencies, substitute eventualities, power usage, sustainable power, fee research, gas escalation, strength and improvement, regulatory matters, obstacles to implementation, conversion structures, garage platforms, thermodynamic potency, gas chain potency, life-cycle potency, know-how concerns extracting, refining, air emission matters, protection, traditional fuel hydrogen gasoline, methanol, ethanol, steam reforming and gasoline cells.
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Additional resources for Alternative Fuels: The Future of Hydrogen
It is the starting point in the synthesis of the products shown in Table 2-2. Table 2-2. Phenolic Products ———————————————————————————————— Photographic developers hydroguinone and disminopphenol Explosive picric acid and melinite Pharmaceuticals salicyclic acid, guaiacol, menthol, and aspirin Coloring material picric acid and fluorescein Plastic materials bakelite Synthetic fabrics nylon and imitation leathers ———————————————————————————————— The middle, or naphthalene oils, separate in that part of the fractionating column with a temperature of 410-460°F.
Petroleum waxes are the white products such as paraffin and vaseline extracted from distillation residues. They are used in candles, wax, polishes, chewing gum, and pharmaceutical and waterproofing products. Petroleum coke is a by-product of refining. It can be obtained in two forms, as thermal or green coke, used as low ash fuel, and in a calcined form, used in aluminum and steel industries as well as in the nuclear industry. Asphalts are viscous or semi-solid residues. Their adhesive and impermeable qualities make them suitable for paving roads, coating roofs, and impregnating wood.
In these fields, almost all the recoverable oil can be eventually brought to the surface. Some oils are too heavy and viscous to flow into wells and must be heated below ground to increase fluidity. This is done by lowering a heating unit into the well. If it increases the flow by five or more barrels per day, it is considered successful. The heating can be done electrically or by circulating hot water. Sometimes heating in situ is done by the hot foot method. The oil is ignited at the bottom of one well, and the fire is maintained by forcing compressed air through the hole.