By James Silverberg, J. Patrick Gray
This e-book explores the function of aggression in primate social structures and its implications for human habit.
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Extra resources for Aggression and Peacefulness in Humans and Other Primates
Their differential aggressiveness did not correlate well with the dominance matrix that summarized their subsequent patterns of wins and losses in fighting. Francis invited scientists to consider the possibility that sometimes "aggressive motivation" (the ability and readiness to fight) plays only a small role in creating dominance orders. Studies in other fish populations find a positive correlation between aggressiveness and dominance, while still others find that such a correlation appears in some conditions, but not in others.
Where males can escape from interactions and perhaps engage in agonistic episodes away from females, female support may not be as influential in shaping male dominance relations. Raleigh and McGuire's work is an exciting development that requires extension both by applying the procedure to other populations and by studying the roles males play in female dominance interactions. The study just reviewed demonstrates that adults of one sex can influence the rank of adults of the opposite sex. Pereira (Chapter 6) suggests that this dynamic varies across species and provides an interesting conjecture for such variation.
Unfortunately, Ross scored the even numbered societies of the Standard Cross-Cultural Sample (Murdock and White 1969) while Whyte coded female prestige for the odd numbered societies. We therefore correlated Sanday's (1981) "Female economic and political power or authority scale" with Ross's scores on several variables. Surprisingly, we found no relationship between Sanday's scores on amount of female power and level of either internal or external violence. Further, female power did not correlate significantly with either affectionate or harsh socialization practices, nor with the degree of male gender identity conflict.