By Mašán, Peter, Fenďa, Peter
Read or Download A review of the laelapid mites associated with terrestrial mammals in Slovakia, with a key to the European species. - 1 PDF
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Extra info for A review of the laelapid mites associated with terrestrial mammals in Slovakia, with a key to the European species. - 1
In the White Sea, regular surveys have been conducted over a long period of years to estimate the number of females in the breeding lairs there. In recent years, aerial surveys have also been conducted to estimate pup production of harp and hooded seals in the Greenland Sea  but with limited success due to the very difficult logistics associated with operations in that remote area as well as unfavourable weather and ice conditions in past years. A survey estimate of harp seal pup production in 1991 has been presented , but the status for the West Ice hooded seal population is still unknown.
To summarize the interpoint distances in a Poisson cluster process, one introduces the so-called K-function, defined by yK(t) = expected number of further points within distance t from an arbitrary point in the process where y is the overall intensity of points, y = 2M = 2/t2~p 2 (3) In the present model, "points" are the individual whales, and yK(t) thus is defined as the expected number of further whales within an interpoint distance not exceeding t from a randomly chosen whale. From the theory in Diggle  we find that in the present model, K(t) = art 2 4- "~- 1 -- exp - 4P 2 and so the kt-parameter disappears.
From the observed data, one has positions of initial sightings Pj = (Xj, Yj), j = 1 ..... J. The occurrence/exposure data are (Ei,Di), i= 1 ..... I, where Ei = (Xi, Yi) is the relative position of the ith exposure, and D i is 1 if the object was successfully sighted at the ith exposure, and 0 if it was missed. Writing Q(x,y Ifl) for the hazard probability of sighting at relative position (x,y) when the hazard parameter has value fl, one might use as descriptive log likelihood I L(fl) -" ~_~ [O i log(Q( X i , Y/lfl) + (1- D i ) log(1- Q(X i , Y/]fl))] i=1 + ~ [log(Q(Xj, Yj Ifl))- a--v~~ Q(x / y j) dz]- 7 log(w) j=l (8) The first likelihood component is the binomial likelihood of the occurrence/exposure data.