By Florian Cajori

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**Additional info for A History Of Mathematical Notations Volume 1: Notations In Elementary Mathematics**

**Sample text**

The Cop- derived from the Greek and demotic writing, and was writing used by Christians in Egypt after the third century. The Coptic tic is Mohammedans numeral symbols were adopted by the in Egypt after their conquest of that country. 26. At the present time two examples of the old Egyptian soluwhat we now term "quadratic equations" 1 tion of problems involving 3 are known. For square root the symbol Ir has been used in the modern hieroglyphic transcription, as the interpretation of writing in the two papyri; for quotient was used the symbol oo .

Op. , p. 112. James Gow, Short History of Greek Mathematics (Cambridge, 1884), p. 48, 50. *Geographia (ed. Carolus Mullerus; Paris, 1883), Vol. I, Part I, p. 151. Metrologicorum scriptorum reliquiae (Leipzig, 1804), Vol. I, p. 173, 174. On and 176 Hultsch collects the numeral symbols found in three Parisian manu175 p. scripts, written in Greek, which exhibit minute variations in the symbolism. For 7 instance, 700 is found to be ^ f ^, \j/ . A HISTORY OF MATHEMATICAL NOTATIONS 28 L. C. Karpinski, 1 and supposed to be intermediate between the the Akhmim papyrus.

Discloses number symbols as "' for 1, ))))) or or for 5, for 10, \ or / for follows: ) or I 1 1 1 1 1 2 In thk 100, <> for 1,000, V for i (probably), \\\\: :::))) for 483. combination of symbols only the additive principle is employed. Somewhat later, 3 10 is represented also by a horizontal dash; the 1 G. H. F. Ncsselmann, Die Algebra der Griechen (Berlin, 1842), M. Cantor, Vorlesungen liber Geschichte der Malhematik, 2 Arthur J. 8 Arthur J. also p. 279. p. 72, 494; Vol. ), P- 126, 127. Evans, Scripla Minoa, Vol.